Defining Work-Life Balance: Energy is the Missing Ingredient
Defining work-life balance today is a complicated endeavor. The modern workforce is faced with a new set of rules, advanced technology, and a digital existence that is increasingly blurring the lines that define where work ends, and life begins.
In the Interest of Saving Time
Achieving and sometimes even simply defining work-life balance is a problem that professionals everywhere struggle with. A search for solutions yields hundreds of books and thousands of articles, all with different recommendations and claims for achieving the perfect balance. Lately, popular literature on the topic is shifting toward a new vision of work-life balance, absorbing how technology transforms the whole equation – work-life integration.
While the terms are different, both work-life balance and work-life integration are conceptualized around the principle that work productivity is measured against time. Whereas work-life balance developed from a desire for parents to allocate time away from work to attend to child-rearing duties, work-life integration promises a brave new world where workers can seamlessly integrate both work and life tasks throughout their days.
But as the workforce shifts from knowledge work to meaningful work, measuring workforce productivity is subject to new inputs like purpose, creativity, engagement, and presence. Yet we still lean on the crutch of measuring employee and organizational performance against time. Before we simply move on to the next iteration of work-life balance, now is the time to completely rethink how we fundamentally approach this problem.
A Brief History of Work-Life Balance
In the late stages of the Industrial Revolution, companies in the United Kingdom begrudgingly concluded that their workers should probably spend fewer hours at work due to alarming health and safety concerns. So they cut back the work hours for women and children. Around the same time, the US started tracking workers’ hours and discovered that the average worker was performing 100 hours a week. This posed a serious health and safety risk for the entire country. On October 24, 1940, after decades of worker movements, the US officially amended the Fair Labor Standards Act and adopted the 40-hour work week.
The actual term “work-life balance” first appeared in the U.K. in the 80’s as a plank in the Women’s Liberation Movement, advocating for flexible schedules and maternity leave. Yet despite the term’s cultural and social origination, women experienced little relief in the workplace. While men were socially unencumbered to pursue their career goals without worrying about housekeeping and family-raising duties, women who successfully reached the upper steps of the corporate ladder still carried the sole responsibility to ensure that their families didn’t suffer as a result. In what can be viewed socially as true work-life imbalance, a frequent refrain in the 80s only asked women in the workplace if they could “have it all?”
Defining Work-Life Balance Today
Today, the term encompasses a wide variety of issues and tactics designed to prevent job burnout as well as to develop better time management skills so employees can spend more time with family and on personal needs. And an increasingly (although not universal) gender-neutral emphasis on the practice of defining work-life balance has now balanced the large but near equal distribution among men and women who report feeling work-life imbalance (2015 EY Global Generations Survey). However, there is a bigger problem – according to a February 2015 study by Workplacetrends.com, 67% of HR professionals reported their belief that employees are achieving work-life balance, while only 45% of their employees report the same.
One of the more fashionable tactics is the provisioning of flex schedules. However, this approach is very much traditional work-life balance in disguise, allocating quantities of time from one area to another without addressing the need to improve the quality of time spent over quantity. And while flextime may be attractive for recruiting purposes, it can also create disproportionately punitive damages for younger workers, resulting in lower wages, role stagnation, and even termination.
Meanwhile, technology is blurring the lines between work and life to the point where flextime is work time anyway. Employers are aware that employees will occasionally attend to personal matters at work, and expect a reciprocal relationship. It’s increasingly difficult to know where work ends and life begins. And the more tech savvy one is, the more difficult is to draw a line between the two. These cultural forces have driven the conversation to its next logical step.
The Evolution Toward Work-Life Integration
So, what is the next step? A new buzzword used to reframe the concept of work-life balance is work-life integration. Many professionals are calling for this new term to be used, a concept that recognizes technology’s role in our personal and professional lives. They argue that removing the boundaries separating work and life will make it harder to see “work” and “life” as two separate domains, and that harmony can be achieved by integrating the two. While someone who focuses on creating work-life balance may set a time where they stop working every day to ensure they have enough time for life’s pursuits, someone focusing on work-life integration may leave work early to go to their child’s softball game and reply to work emails between innings.
But this utopic vision can only be conceived by employers and realized by entrepreneurs. Work-life integration is too narrow a lens to re-imagine this work-life balance. It’s still based around the idea that you have two separate domains — work and life — and you have to somehow trade-off your time between the two. The only material difference between work-life balance and work-life integration is that with integration, the two domains are expected to intermingle and overlap more. In fact, work-life integration may fuel the sense of imbalance more because employees feel as if they have to be “always on.”
Unlocking Energy with Purpose
Removing “balance” or “integration” from the equation and focusing on how we spend our energy instead of time can help lessen these tensions. It’s important to recognize that we all have important things to spend our energy on, but how we choose to use our energy and generate new energy is something we can have control over, and it’s crucial to our efforts of defining work-life balance in the future.
So, how do we maintain and even increase our energy throughout the day? Simple: purpose. A landmark study in the International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health found that setting a work purpose is a surefire way to stay energized throughout the day. Our own proprietary Kumanu data also shows that having a sense of purpose does wonders in creating energy. In fact, Kumanu users with a high sense of purpose have 34% more energy than those who have a low sense of purpose.
The future of defining work-life balance is one where the worker and their employer share a belief that purpose at work and in life is paramount. In this future, work can even start to provide us with energy to use on personal matters instead of depleting it. Conceptualizing work-life balance in terms of energy opens up the opportunity to have a source of intrinsic motivation that you have control over, instead of a fixed source like time.